30) compared strength outcomes in track and field athletes using either a block or DUP program and found that both groups achieved similar improvements, but the DUP group performed 52% more repetitions and had a 35% higher training load. Supporting the idea of specificity, the LP and DUP groups actually improved their strength almost twice as much as the RLP group during the posttest. In other words, they achieve the same adaptation, but at a much higher cost. Acknowledging training residuals allows for a more purposeful allocation of training focus to maximize adaptation, while minimizing unnecessary fatigue associated with attempting to train all relevant qualities simultaneously. Within a competition, fatigue can manifest acutely as a result of a large amount of high-intensity work in a relatively short period, and more progressively as workloads accumulate. Sprint decrement provides a cumulative drop-off of each repetition after the first, compared with fatigue index, which only provides a percentage drop-off from the first to the last repetition, the validity of which may be clouded by players conserving energy in middle repetitions to perform at a higher intensity during the last one. However, because the first phase of the off-season is intended to redevelop a foundation of aerobic fitness and musculoskeletal integrity, and the last phase is designed to smooth the transition to the high workloads and glycolytic demands of training camp, these phases are not nearly as purposeful during the season.
Victory here for the Swiss will not guarantee them a spot in the last 16 but will boost their chances; they’ll be on four points but still with a negative goal difference unless they pick up a big win. That’s now nine losses in 11 games for Minnesota since the Michigan win and six in a row. Although quantifying precise on-ice workloads is a challenge, it is generally accepted that players achieve sufficient speed and glycolytic work from practices and games. Using on-ice tests allows an assessment of these qualities in the mode most specific to the requirements of the sport, minimizing the risk of test results being confounded by the athlete’s familiarity with the chosen movement pattern (e.g., a player who does not bike regularly may not perform to their true maximal level in a bike test). This strategy helps to minimize the degradation of the target quality, while also maintaining the athletes’ familiarity with the movement so they do not experience excessive soreness from a developmental session. Understanding the goals and nature of competing demands during these times will help in identifying the optimal periodization strategy to use during each. By using identical tests for acceleration and change of direction both on and off the ice, inferences can be made about whether an athlete would benefit most from an augmented focus on this quality from an off-ice training standpoint (i.e., to focus on speed as a primary training goal) or from spending more time with a skating coach (i.e., to focus on improved skating efficiency to make better use of the speed potential demonstrated off the ice).
An athlete cannot successfully use Olympic-style lifts, for example, to maximize power output within a 2-4 week phase, if the athlete spends the entire phase doing technique work with an unloaded bar. During this time, players can train 5 days per week, 3-4 of which can be dedicated toward developing the target qualities for the given phase, with 1-2 additional days to accumulate higher weekly training volumes using lower intensity methods designed to both develop the aerobic system and facilitate recovery from more neurologically taxing work on the developmental days. Last, block periodization provides a theoretical construct to help determine which methods are most appropriate to mix on a given day, and within a phase, as well as how often qualities may need to be addressed to minimize detraining. From a practical standpoint, it is imperative to recognize that to maximize the progress within a highly focused phase, the athletes need to be sufficiently proficient in the main exercises to load/stress them appropriately. For example, a player with a well-developed aerobic system and adequate strength that lacks power may benefit from spending less time in phases 1 and 2 and more time in phases 3 and 4. Methods from different phases can be combined in instances where a player may need to spend more or less time working on specific qualities, so long as the methods do not create conflicting stimuli for adaptation.
WHY DO I NEED A DIFFERENT CLEAT BECAUSE I HAVE WIDE FEET? Many models have been proposed, all demonstrating varying levels of population- and goal-specific success. These studies highlight the importance of considering specificity when weighing the value of different models. All 3 of the presented models (linear, undulating, and block) hold value, and should therefore all be integrated into components of the yearly plan. Each stimulus has neurological, mechanical, and chemical components that can trigger molecular sequences leading to increases in proteins used to form structures, making the body more resilient to that stress in the future (8). In theory, if 2 training methods create a conflicting stimulus for adaptation, the body may not respond as favorably to either as it would if the same stimuli were presented separately (8,20). Indeed, this concept has been supported in training studies, particularly as it applies to concurrent resistance and endurance exercise (15), supporting the idea that a more focused approach to a singular quality, or multiple nonconflicting qualities, would allow a more profound adaptation, or the same adaptation at a reduced cost. With the on-ice, travel, and general stress demands of the season, the primary focuses of the in-season period are to strategically develop qualities supporting on-ice work and to help facilitate recovery.
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